Sharks that frequent diving tourism sites where food is provided have higher levels of testosterone and corticosteroids than others that spend less time in these areas, as well as a better nutritional state. The effects of shark-human interaction are poorly understood.
In a webinar held to present the third chapter of the book published by the São Paulo State Academy of Sciences to commemorate FAPESP’s sixtieth anniversary, specialists showed that protection of terrestrial and marine environments contributes to food production and job creation, among other benefits.
Several substances that killed antibiotic-resistant bacteria were found by Brazilian researchers in a marine sponge native to Fernando de Noronha, an archipelago off the coast of the Northeast.
Analysis of blood samples showed that sharks living near urban areas have a lower-quality diet than those living in wilderness areas. Dietary imbalances can impair important physiological processes, such as cardiovascular tone, inflammatory response and reproduction.
Species sensitive to habitat change are gradually being replaced by more resistant species, according to a study conducted in Brazil. The trend is leading to a loss of the ecological functions performed by the vanishing species.
Genetic sequencing enables scientists to identify 79 different species of coralline algae serving as a habitat for countless marine organisms on the Brazilian coast, with many yet to be explored in deep waters.
Described in 2019, the Queimada Grande coral reef off the coast of São Paulo state arose when the ocean was warmer and stopped growing when cooler sea surface temperatures influenced the climate in the region, according to a study led by researchers at the Federal University of São Paulo.
A book with a Brazilian co-author documents 267 species in the archipelago, 47 of which had never been described before. It resulted from 37 scientific expeditions conducted between 1978 and 2016 by France’s National Museum of Natural History.
On the basis of genetic analysis of jellyfish specimens held in collections around the world, researchers have reclassified these species in the genus Aurelia, many of which are highly similar. Painstaking descriptions of species are key to conservation strategies.
Scientists identified fish orders present in the Javari River basin by sequencing DNA molecules in water samples. To make the method more sensitive and capable of differentiating species, however, reference libraries of genetic material must be created.
A study published in Frontiers in Marine Science is the first to predict the impact of long-term changes in sea surface temperature on local microbial diversity. The methodology is also innovative.
A study conducted in the port city of Santos (Brazil) by researchers at the Federal University of São Paulo shows collaboration between civil society and academia achieving progress toward the goals of the UN Ocean Decade.
Plankton are the foundation of life in the oceans and produce half the world’s oxygen. These marine microorganisms will suffer from rising temperatures at the poles, rising salinity in the tropics, and a reduction in the flow of nutrients in the temperate zone, according to simulations based on data collected from all oceans around the globe.
Electric eels of the species Electrophorus varii feed on other fish, especially those habitually hunted by larger predators such as caimans and giant river otters. Hunting tactics enable them to maintain the same diet in the wet and dry seasons alike.
Analysis of data collected over 20 years suggests the decline is due to the construction of over 180 dams on the Paraná and its tributaries.
Analysis of fishery data and interviews with artisanal fishers confirmed replacement of large species by others that are less valuable commercially, and 37 species were considered overfished.
Fewer Atlantic mangrove fiddler crab embryos survived in a warmer, more acid environment mimicking conditions forecast for the end of this century. Given the important ecological role of this invertebrate in mangroves, the researchers warn of a potential cascade effect.
Fifty researchers at 26 institutions analyzed a huge mass of data, finding that no single size of conservation area is valid for the entire country.
Genetic mapping of the shark’s liver and eye tissue showed overexpression of nine genes known for action in tumor suppression, wound healing, and probable monochrome vision. The species is considered globally endangered and caught on a large scale by industrial fishing vessels.
Analysis identified 525 genes encoding proteins that act on the nervous system, cardiovascular system and cell walls. One of the molecules proved effective against cancer cells in preliminary test results.
Simulations using field data suggest focusing on the protection of species that live in rivers and lakes can be more efficient than the approach most used now, which focuses on terrestrial biodiversity. An article at Science is based on the findings.
Brazilian researchers show that African forage grasses resist management by fire and that palisade grass tends to spread to burned areas previously occupied by molasses grass, another invasive species.
Thanks to the use of high-resolution microcomputed tomography, a cross-border research collaboration was able to study the only three known specimens of Tembeassu marauna, held at the University of São Paulo’s Zoology Museum. The results enabled scientists to classify the species more precisely.
The animals' response may be a sign of ecosystem imbalance. Experiments performed on six beaches of Brazil’s Southeast Region showed that the mussels' activity intensifies when they are exposed to metallic contaminants in seawater.